Cycle Benchmarking (CB)

Cycle benchmarkinga (CB) is a breakthrough new capability to efficiently estimate the holistic and full impact of all local and global error rates from all relevant error mechanisms including error correlations and cross-talk (see [2]) for any parallel set of quantum operations over an \(n\)-qubit quantum processor. CB is a completely scalable protocol that also enables Pauli Error Reconstruction for developing a detailed understanding of the leading error mechanisms that limit system performance. A simplified version of CB for Clifford gates is illustrated below.

../_images/cb_scheme.svg

a Patent pending.

Example

#
# Cycle benchmarking (CB) example.
# Copyright 2019 Quantum Benchmark Inc.
#

import trueq as tq

# Define a cycle that we want to benchmark.
cycle = {(0,): tq.Gate.x, (1, 2): tq.Gate.cz}

# Generate a circuit collection to run CB on the above cycle with 30 random circuits
# for each circuit length in [4, 32, 64] and 6 randomly chosen pauli decay strings.
# Note that, typically, at least 20 pauli_decays should be used; we used 6 here
# to make the example run faster.
circuits = tq.make_cb(cycle, [4, 12, 32], 30, 6)

# Initialize a simulator with stochastic pauli noise.
sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01)

# Run the circuits on the simulator to populate the results.
sim.run(circuits)

# Plot the results.
circuits.plot.raw(labels=[[0, 1, 2]])

# Print summary of the results.
circuits.fit(labels=[[0, 1, 2]]).summarize()
../_images/cb_example.svg

The output parameters of this protocol are displayed below. When the circuits were generated, six random 3-qubit paulis were chosen as representatives, and the rate of decay of each was measured; these decay rates are reported. However, the parameter of interest is the composite parameter r, which is an estimate of the average gate infidelity infidelity of the entire cycle.

CB on [0, 1, 2]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    r     3.769  [2.973,4.565]  e-02  Process infidelity of the noise map

CB on [0, 1, 2] with decay IIX
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    A     0.999  [0.971,1.027]        SPAM of the exponential decay A * p ** m
    p     0.979  [0.976,0.982]        Decay rate of the exponential decay A * p ** m

CB on [0, 1, 2] with decay IXI
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    A     0.989  [0.969,1.008]        SPAM of the exponential decay A * p ** m
    p     0.979  [0.977,0.981]        Decay rate of the exponential decay A * p ** m

CB on [0, 1, 2] with decay IXX
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    A     0.980  [0.934,1.026]        SPAM of the exponential decay A * p ** m
    p     0.960  [0.954,0.965]        Decay rate of the exponential decay A * p ** m

CB on [0, 1, 2] with decay IYY
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    A     0.957  [0.918,0.995]        SPAM of the exponential decay A * p ** m
    p     0.962  [0.957,0.967]        Decay rate of the exponential decay A * p ** m

CB on [0, 1, 2] with decay IZZ
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    A     1.005  [0.897,1.113]        SPAM of the exponential decay A * p ** m
    p     0.911  [0.893,0.928]        Decay rate of the exponential decay A * p ** m

CB on [0, 1, 2] with decay XXZ
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Name  Estimate   95% CI              Description
    A     0.914  [0.890,0.937]        SPAM of the exponential decay A * p ** m
    p     0.983  [0.981,0.986]        Decay rate of the exponential decay A * p ** m