# Algorithms

 trueq.algorithms.algorithms.bernstein_vazirani Returns a circuit which implements the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for finding a hidden bitstring $$s \in \{0, 1\}^n$$ that defines a function $$f: \{0, 1\}^n \rightarrow\{0, 1\}$$ via $$f(x) = x_1 s_1 \oplus \dots \oplus x_n s_n$$. trueq.algorithms.algorithms.simon Returns a circuit which implements Simon's algorithm for a periodic function $$f: \{0, 1\}^n \rightarrow \{0, 1\}^n$$ specified by the period $$s \in \{0, 1\}^n$$ via $$f(x) = x \oplus x_i s$$, where $$i$$ is the smallest index for which $$s_i = 1$$. trueq.algorithms.subroutines.qft Returns a circuit which implements the quantum Fourier transform on $$n$$-qubits, $$\mathcal{F}_{2^n}$$.

## Algorithms

trueq.algorithms.algorithms.bernstein_vazirani(bitstring)

Returns a circuit which implements the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for finding a hidden bitstring $$s \in \{0, 1\}^n$$ that defines a function $$f: \{0, 1\}^n \rightarrow\{0, 1\}$$ via $$f(x) = x_1 s_1 \oplus \dots \oplus x_n s_n$$. Classically one needs to evaluate the function $$f$$ at least $$\Omega(n)$$ times to achieve this task, whereas this quantum algorithm requires a single application of a unitary circuit satisfying $$U_f |x \rangle |b\rangle = |x \rangle |b\oplus f(x) \rangle$$ for all $$x \in \{0,1\}^n$$ and $$b \in \{0,1\}$$.

import trueq as tq
import numpy as np

circuit = tq.algorithms.bernstein_vazirani((1, 1, 1, 1, 1))
circuit.draw()

# simulate the circuit and plot the output distribution
tq.Simulator().sample(circuit, n_shots=np.inf).plot() Parameters

bitstring (tuple) – The bitstring that defines the function $$f$$.

Return type

Circuit

trueq.algorithms.algorithms.simon(period)

Returns a circuit which implements Simon’s algorithm for a periodic function $$f: \{0, 1\}^n \rightarrow \{0, 1\}^n$$ specified by the period $$s \in \{0, 1\}^n$$ via $$f(x) = x \oplus x_i s$$, where $$i$$ is the smallest index for which $$s_i = 1$$.

Simon’s problem is to find the (hidden) period $$s$$ given oracle access to a function $$f$$ that satisfies the periodicity property: $$f(x) = f(y)$$ if and only if $$x = y$$ or $$x = y \oplus s$$. Every probabilistic classical algorithm that solves this problem requires at least $$\Omega(2^{n/2})$$ evaluations of the function $$f$$, whereas Simon’s algorithm requires only $$O(n)$$ calls to a unitary satisfying $$U_f |x \rangle |y\rangle = |x \rangle |y\oplus f(x) \rangle$$.

The circuit uses $$n-1$$ auxiliary qubits, and maps the $$n$$-qubit data register to a uniform superposition of all computational basis states $$|x\rangle$$ that satisfy $$x_1 s_1 \oplus \dots \oplus x_n s_n = 0$$. To compute the period $$s$$ on the quantum computer, one draws $$O(n)$$ samples from the output state, then uses classical processing to find $$s$$ by solving a system of binary linear constraints.

import trueq as tq
import numpy as np

circuit = tq.algorithms.simon((1, 1, 1, 1, 1))
circuit.draw()

# simulate the circuit and plot the output distribution
tq.Simulator().sample(circuit, n_shots=np.inf).plot() Parameters

period (tuple) – The period of the implictly defined function $$f$$.

Return type

Circuit

## Subroutines

trueq.algorithms.subroutines.qft(labels, truncate_at=None, swap=True)

Returns a circuit which implements the quantum Fourier transform on $$n$$-qubits, $$\mathcal{F}_{2^n}$$.

By default, the returned circuit contains no approximations. However, by calling this method with an integer value for truncate_at, the returned circuit will be approximated by truncating certain controlled-$$Z$$ rotations. Given an integer $$b$$, the approximated Fourier transform will not contain controlled-$$Z$$ rotations with angles smaller than $$2 \pi / 2^{b+1}$$, or in other words, all cascades of controlled rotations will have depth no longer than $$b$$.

Setting swap to False omits the final subcircuit which reverses the order of the qubits. This step requires $$O(n)$$ swap gates, and can be safely omitted and replaced by classical post-processing if the QFT is immediately followed by measurement.

import numpy as np
import trueq as tq

circuit = tq.algorithms.qft(range(4), truncate_at=2)
circuit.measure_all()
circuit.draw()

Parameters
• labels (Iterable) – The qubit labels on which the Fourier transform acts.

• truncate_at (NoneType | int) – An integer $$b$$, which specifies the removal of all controlled-$$Z$$ gates with an angle smaller than $$2 \pi / 2^b$$, or None by default to remove no gates in the generated circuit.

• swap (bool) – Whether to include the subcircuit which reverses the order of the qubits at the end of the QFT circuit. Default is True.

Return type

Circuit