Simulation

trueq.Simulator

A (noisy) quantum simulator for Circuit objects that can be used to compute the final state(), the total effective operator(), or simply run() them to sample() shots.

trueq.Simulator.add_cycle_noise

A noise source which can insert or replace entire cycles during simulation.

trueq.Simulator.add_depolarizing

Appends a noise source to this simulator that adds isotropic depolarizing noise to the simulation.

trueq.Simulator.add_gate_replace

Adds a noise source that replaces all matched Gates in the circuit with the returned valued of fn.

trueq.Simulator.add_knr_noise

A noise source which reconstructs the noise of each cycle for each KNR experiment in fit_or_circuits; for more information refer to the KNR guide.

trueq.Simulator.add_kraus

Appends a noise source to this simulator that adds Kraus noise to the simulation.

trueq.Simulator.add_overrotation

Appends a noise source to this simulator that performs gate over/underrotation.

trueq.Simulator.add_povm

Appends measurement noise in the form of a positive operator-valued measurement (POVM).

trueq.Simulator.add_prep

Appends a state preparation description to this simulator that chooses which state to prepare whenever an operator is encountered in a circuit.

trueq.Simulator.add_rcal_noise

Appends measurement classification error to this simulator, where errors are specified by confusion matrices estimated by the readout calibration protocol (RCAL).

trueq.Simulator.add_readout_error

Appends measurement classification error to this simulator, where errors are specified by confusion matrices.

trueq.Simulator.add_relaxation

Appends a noise source to this simulator that adds \(T_1\) and \(T_2\) relaxation noise to the simulation.

trueq.Simulator.add_stochastic_pauli

Appends a noise source to this simulator that introduces stochastic Pauli noise.

trueq.Simulator.dressed_noise

Computes the dressed noise of the given cycle for every list of labels in labels_list.

trueq.Simulator.operator

Returns the unitary or superoperator that results from simulating the given circuit.

trueq.Simulator.predict_cb

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_cb() with this simulator.

trueq.Simulator.predict_irb

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_irb() with this simulator.

trueq.Simulator.predict_knr

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_knr() with this simulator.

trueq.Simulator.predict_srb

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_srb() with this simulator.

trueq.Simulator.run

Updates the results attribute of each given circuit by simulating its final quantum state and sampling shots from it.

trueq.Simulator.state

Returns the quantum state that results from simulating the given circuit.

trueq.simulation.match.CycleWrapper

Wraps a Cycle into a list of OpWrappers, partitioning the cycle ops into three groups, Gate which contains all gates, Meas which contains all measurements, and Prep which contains all state preparations in the cycle being propagated by the simulator.

trueq.simulation.match.Match

A class whose purpose is to filter the operations presented to a given NoiseSource in a Simulator instance.

trueq.simulation.match.OpWrapper

Wraps labels and an Operation into one small object.

trueq.simulation.noise_source.NoiseSource

Parent class for all built in noise sources which can be added to the simulator.

trueq.simulation.simulator.CircuitPropagator

A helper class to Simulator that abstracts the logic of iterating through the cycles of a circuit and applying noise sources to whatever kind of state is provided.

Simulator

class trueq.Simulator

A (noisy) quantum simulator for Circuit objects that can be used to compute the final state(), the total effective operator(), or simply run() them to sample() shots.

import trueq as tq

# initialize a simulator with no noise present
sim = tq.Simulator()

# initialize a simulator with depolarizing noise at rate 1%
sim = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.01)

# initialize a simulator with depolarizing noise at rate 1%, and unitary
# overration by 5%
sim = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.01).add_overrotation(0.05)

# make some circuits and populate their results with random shots
circuits = tq.make_srb([0], [4, 60])
sim.run(circuits, n_shots=100)
circuits[0].results
Results({'0': 94, '1': 6})
add_cycle_noise(replacement, match, cycle_offset=0, dim=2)

A noise source which can insert or replace entire cycles during simulation. The replacement cycle can be specified as a cycle-like object, or a function which takes in a cycle and returns a cycle-like. A cycle-like is either a cycle or a dictionary of labels and operations. The operations contained in this dictionary can be Gates, Superops, or a matrix representation of either. Any specified superops must act on the same number of systems as specified by their label keys.

The relative location of cycle insertion or replacement is determined by cycle_offset; a value of -1 inserts the noisy cycle before the matched cycle, 0 inserts the cycle in place of the matched cycle, and +1 inserts the cycle after the matched cycle. These are the only allowed values. The match owned by this instance must be a child class of BaseCycleMatch. This restriction allows the noise source to match on past cycles and thus has the ability to simulate non-Markovian noise.

Note that replacing the current cycle or inserting a noisy cycle after the current cycle will force simulation of the current cycle and set has_been_simulated to True.

Some examples are provided below:

import trueq as tq
import trueq.math as tqm
import trueq.simulation as tqs
import numpy as np

cyc_h = tq.Cycle({0: tq.Gate.h})
cyc_cx = tq.Cycle({(0, 1): tq.Gate.cx})
cyc_cz = tq.Cycle({(0, 1): tq.Gate.cz})

m_h = tqs.CycleMatch(cyc_h, lag=1)
m_cx = tqs.CycleMatch(cyc_cx)
m_cz = tqs.CycleMatch(cyc_cz)

# insert a small flip angle cycle before any CNOT cycles
circuit1 = tq.Circuit([cyc_h, cyc_cx])
small_flip = {(0,1): tq.Gate.rx(10)}
sim1 = tq.Simulator()
sim1.add_cycle_noise(small_flip, cycle_offset=-1, match=m_cx)
sim1.sample(circuit1, n_shots=100).plot()

# replace any CZ cycle which follows a Hadamard cycle with a CNOT cycle
circuit2 = tq.Circuit([cyc_cz, cyc_h, cyc_cz])
m_past = tqs.AndCycleMatch(m_h, m_cz)
sim2 = tq.Simulator().add_cycle_noise(cyc_cx, match=m_past, cycle_offset=0)
print(sim2.state(circuit2).mat())

# insert a cycle-like which does a small X rotation on qubit 0 and
# depolarizes qubit 1 after any CNOT cycle
superop = tqm.Superop.from_ptm(np.diag([1, 0.99, 0.99, 0.99]))
cyc_like = {0: [[1, 0.1j],[0.1j, 1]] , 1: superop}
circuit3 = tq.Circuit([cyc_h, cyc_cx, cyc_h, cyc_cx])
sim3 = tq.Simulator().add_cycle_noise(cyc_like, cycle_offset=1, match=m_cx)
mixed_state = sim3.state(circuit3)
assert mixed_state.is_mixed

# replace any CNOT cycle with a noisy version of it, using a function in
# place of a cycle-like
def two_qubit_error(cycle):
    # expects cycles containing only two-qubit gates
    cycle_like = {}
    pert = tq.Gate.rp("ZZ", 5)
    for labels, gate in cycle.gates.items():
        cycle_like[labels] = pert @ gate ** 1.05 @ pert.adj
    return cycle_like

sim4 = tq.Simulator()
sim4.add_cycle_noise(two_qubit_error, cycle_offset=0, match=m_cx)
pure_state = sim4.state(circuit3)
[0.70710678+0.j 0.        +0.j 0.        +0.j 0.70710678+0.j]
../_images/simulation_1_1.png
Parameters
  • replacement (Cycle | dict | function) – A cycle-like, or function which takes a cycle and returns a cycle-like, to be inserted when the noise source matches.

  • match (BaseCycleMatch) – An instance of a cycle match for determining which cycles this noise source will match to.

  • cycle_offset (int) – Whether to insert the replacement cycle before (-1), in place of (0), or after (+1) the cycles matched by this noise source.

  • dim (int) – An integer representing the dimension of the subsystem upon which the noise source acts. dim is 2, representing qubits, by default.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If the match is not a cycle match instance, the cycle_offset is not -1, 0 or 1, or if replace_with generates a cycle with invalid dimensions.

add_depolarizing(p, d=2, match=None)

Appends a noise source to this simulator that adds isotropic depolarizing noise to the simulation. By default, noise is added every time a gate is encountered, however, by specifying match, the user can design a noise profile which is gate- and/or qubit-dependent. See Match for more details. The noise map for a given gate is defined by

\[\mathcal{D}(\rho) = (1-p) \rho + p \text{Tr}(\rho) \mathcal{I} / d\]

where \(d=2\) for qubits. If, for example, a two-qubit gate is encountered, the tensor product of two one-qubit depolarizing channels will be simulated. By default, depolarizing noise is applied to every system being acted on by a gate in a given cycle. For example, if qubits (0,1) get a CNOT, and qubit 3 gets an X in a given cycle, then depolarizing noise is applied to only these three qubits, even if the preceeding cycle contained a gate which acted on qubit 2. To ensure a depolarizing channel acts on all qubits during each cycle, include identity gates explicitly in the cycle definition.

Note that this is noise only—it does not try to implement the cycle in question, but only adds noise to it.

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs

circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0,1): tq.Gate.cx, 2: tq.Gate.h}])

# make a simulator with depolarizing noise with p=0.02 acting at every
# location where a gate is applied
sim = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.02)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# make a simulator where depolarizing noise acts only on locations where
# gates act on qubit 5
sim = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.04, match=tqs.LabelMatch(5))
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))
Results({'000': 490, '001': 492, '010': 8, '011': 3, '110': 4, '111': 3})
Results({'000': 501, '001': 499})
Parameters
  • p (float) – The depolarizing parameter, as defined in the equation above.

  • d (int) – The subsystem dimension, 2 for qubits.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

NotImplementedError – If not called for qubits.

add_gate_replace(fn, match=None)

Adds a noise source that replaces all matched Gates in the circuit with the returned valued of fn. Each new gate returned by fn must have the same dimensions as the gate it replaces.

No caching is performed on the outputs of fn; consider memoizing your function with functools.lru_cache() to increase speed.

See below for an example of gate replacement noise, which overrotates native gates matching a specific name by a random value within \([-5, +5]\) degrees.

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs
import random

def rand_noise(gate):
    # a function which creates a small amount of random parameter noise
    # this function expects ``gate`` to be native and have the parameter
    # "theta"
    theta = gate.parameters["theta"]
    return tq.Gate.rp("X", theta + random.uniform(-5, 5))

# this match will ensure that ``rand_noise`` only ever applies to native
# gates with the name "rx_noisy"
match = tqs.NativeMatch("rx_noisy")

# create and simulate a circuit with non-trivial noise application, where
# any native gate with name "rx_noisy" also has a parameter named "theta"
g = tq.NativeGate.from_generators("rx_noisy", "X", 90, params={"theta": 90})
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0,): g}])
sim = tq.Simulator().add_gate_replace(rand_noise, match)

# The 90 degree X rotation has been overrotated by a random amount
sim.state(circuit).mat()
array([0.67691567+0.j        , 0.        -0.73606058j])
Parameters
  • fn (function) – A function which takes in a gate and returns a gate with the same dimensions.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If the new gate does not match the dimensions of the gate that it is replacing.

add_knr_noise(fit_or_circuits, exclusive=False, ignore_identity=False, ignore_marker=True)

A noise source which reconstructs the noise of each cycle for each KNR experiment in fit_or_circuits; for more information refer to the KNR guide.

For each unique Cycle with results contained in fit_or_circuits, we extract the NormalEstimates for each gate-body within the cycle. For each gate-body, we construct the Superop which models the one-body noise, as measured by the KNR protocol. If the same cycle appears more than once, it is ambiguous which fit should be used to reconstruct the noise, and an error is raised.

Running the KNR protocol on a cycle with explicitly defined identities will estimate the noise seen by idle qubits. For convenience, setting the flag ignore_identity to True will allow the reconstructed noise operator to match with cycles that do not contain explicit identity operators, so long as another cycle within the circuit being simulated contains operations which act on those qubits.

Similarly, KNR noise can be set to apply to only those cycles which are equal to the cycle estimated by the KNR protocol and have equal marker values, by setting ignore_marker to False. The matching occurs via an internally instantiated CycleMatch.

In the example below, we instantiate a noisy simulator and estimate the noise seen by an example cycle via the KNR protocol. We then use the resulting fit to instantiate a new simulator which reconstructs the noise of the first simulator.

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs

cycle = tq.Cycle({0: tq.Gate.h, 1: tq.Gate.z, (2,3):tq.Gate.cx})
knr_circuits = tq.make_knr(
    cycle, n_random_cycles=[2, 6, 10], n_circuits=30, n_bodies=1
)

sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01, py=.01)
sim.add_stochastic_pauli(pz=0.02, match=tqs.LabelMatch((0,3)))
sim.run(knr_circuits)

knr_sim = tq.Simulator().add_knr_noise(knr_circuits)

circuit = tq.Circuit(cycle)
circuit.measure_all()

knr_sim.sample(circuit, 100).plot()

sim.sample(circuit, 100).plot()
../_images/simulation_4_0.png ../_images/simulation_4_1.png
Parameters
  • fit_or_circuits (EstimateCollection | CircuitCollection) – An estimate collection or a set of circuits which contain estimates of or circuits for the KNR protocol.

  • exclusive (bool) – If True, all gates within the targeted cycles will be marked as no_more_noise during simulation. This is False by default.

  • ignore_identity (bool) – Whether or not to match this noise to cycles containing identical operations, ignoring any identity operators. This is False by default.

  • ignore_marker (bool) – If True, match this noise to cycles which contain the same operations but have differet markers. This is True by default.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If a cycle in the fit_or_circuits appears in the fit multiple times, or if the fit is empty.

add_kraus(kraus_ops, match=None, dim=2)

Appends a noise source to this simulator that adds Kraus noise to the simulation. The noise is added to each gate matched by match, so long as the Kraus operators’ dimensions allow it to be applied to the matched gates. By default, single-qubit Kraus noise will apply to to all subsystems of any matched gate, whereas multi-qubit Kraus noise will only be applied to gates of the same dimension. If a multi-qubit Kraus channel matches to a multi-qubit gate acting on more subsystems than the Kraus operators, an error will be raised. The noise map is defined by

\[\mathcal{K}(\rho) = \sum_{i} K_i \rho K_i^\dagger\]

Note that this is noise only—it does not try to implement a given cycle in question, but only adds noise to it.

By default, Kraus noise will affect only those subsystems of a cycle with a gate present. For example, if qubits (0,1) get a CNOT, and qubit 3 gets an X in given cycle, then Kraus noise only has the ability to match with these three qubits, even if the preceeding cycle had a gate which acted on qubit 2. To ensure that the Kraus channel has the opportunity to act on all qubits during each cycle, include identity gates explicitly in the cycle definition.

The dimension of the underlying subsystems upon which the Kraus operators act is specified by dim, which has a default value of 2. Kraus noise which induces leakage into additional levels must specify dim accordingly to account for the increased dimension.

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs
import numpy as np

circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0,1): tq.Gate.cx, 2: tq.Gate.h}])

# define qubit dephasing kraus operators
kraus_ops = [np.sqrt(0.99)*np.eye(2), np.sqrt(0.01)*np.diag([1,-1])]

# initialize a simulator in which qubit dephasing noise acts on every
# location where gates are applied
sim = tq.Simulator().add_kraus(kraus_ops)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# define a set of Kraus operators acting on single-qubit gates, and set
# of Kraus operators to explicitly act on two-qubit gates
kraus_ops1 = [np.sqrt(0.999) * np.eye(2), np.sqrt(0.001) * np.diag([1, -1])]
kraus_ops2 = [
    np.sqrt(0.99) * np.eye(4),
    np.sqrt(0.01) * np.fliplr(np.diag([1, 1, 1, 1]))
]

# initialize a simulator with the noise defined above acting at
# every location where a gate acts
sim = tq.Simulator().add_kraus(kraus_ops1, match=tqs.SingleQubitMatch())
sim.add_kraus(kraus_ops2, match=tqs.NQubitMatch(2))
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# initialize a simulator which applies the above noise when a gate acts
# on qubit 0
noisy_label = tqs.LabelMatch(0, strict=False)
sim = tq.Simulator().add_kraus(kraus_ops1, match=noisy_label)
sim.add_kraus(kraus_ops2, match=noisy_label)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# initialize a simulator which applies the above noise when an X gate acts
# on qubit 2 or 3
# no 2 qubit gates will be matched under these conditions, no need to add
# the two-qubit kraus channel to the simulator
sim=tq.Simulator()
noise_match = tqs.LabelMatch((2,3)) & tqs.GateMatch(tq.Gate.x)
sim.add_kraus(kraus_ops1, match=noise_match)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))
Results({'000': 462, '001': 538})
Results({'000': 513, '100': 11, '001': 473, '101': 3})
Results({'000': 492, '001': 501, '100': 2, '101': 5})
Results({'000': 492, '001': 508})
Parameters
  • kraus_ops (iterable) – An iterable of square matrices, each of which must be the same size, and act on subsystems of dimension dim.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

  • dim (int) – An integer representing the dimension of the subsystem upon which the Kraus operators act. dim is 2, representing qubits, by default.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If kraus_ops has the wrong dimension or is not a list of square matrices.

add_overrotation(single_sys=0, multi_sys=0, match=None)

Appends a noise source to this simulator that performs gate over/underrotation. This is done by propagating by the matrix power \(U_{err}=U^{(1+\epsilon)}\) instead of the ideal gate \(U\). Overrotation noise does attempt to simulate the gates within a circuit, it is not just noise only.

For consistency, we deterministically fix a global phase convention for each gate to be overrotated. For single qubit rotations, this fixes the branches of X and Z rotations to :py:math:`[-180, 180]`, and Y rotations to :py:math:`[-90, 270]`.

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs

circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0,1): tq.Gate.cx, 2: tq.Gate.h}])

# initialize a simulator in which every single-qubit gate is overrotated by
# epsilon=0.01
sim = tq.Simulator().add_overrotation(single_sys=0.01)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# initialize a simulator in which every single-qubit gate is overrotated by
# epsilon=0.02 and every multi-qubit gate by epsilon=0.04
sim = tq.Simulator().add_overrotation(single_sys=0.02, multi_sys=0.04)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# initialize a simulator in which overrotations are applied whenever a gate
# acts on any qubits in {0, 2}
sim = tq.Simulator()
noisy_labels = tqs.LabelMatch((0,2))
sim.add_overrotation(single_sys=0.02, multi_sys=0.01, match=noisy_labels)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))
Results({'000': 493, '001': 507})
Results({'000': 503, '001': 497})
Results({'000': 489, '001': 511})
Parameters
  • single_sys (float) – The amount of over/underrotation to apply to gates that act on a single subsystem (ie. single-qubit). A value of 0 corresponds to no overrotation, a negative value corresponds to underrotation, and a positive value corresponds to overrotation.

  • multi_sys (float) – The amount of over/underrotation to apply to gates that act on a multiple subsystems (ie. multi-qubit). A value of 0 corresponds to no overrotation, a negative value corresponds to underrotation, and a positive value corresponds to overrotation.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

add_povm(povm, match=None)

Appends measurement noise in the form of a positive operator-valued measurement (POVM). This method allows two types of POVMs: “true” POVMs, and “classification” POVMs, described below.

A true POVM applies to density matrices, where the probability of a particular outcome \(x\) is given by \(p_x=\operatorname{Tr}(\rho E_x)\). Here, \(x\) is typically a bitstring and \(E_x\) is the corresponding positive-semidefinite measurement operator. For measurement noise that is uncorrelated between subsystems, \(E_x\) will be a tensor product \(E_x=E_{x_1}\otimes \cdots \otimes E_{x_n}\). This is entered as a Tensor with shape ((k,), (d, d)) where k is the number of outcomes per qubit, and d is the Hilbert state dimension, which must match the simulation. A sum over the k axis must produce the identity matrix for a probability preserving POVM. Note that there is no requirement that k == d, for example, k = 3; d = 2 represents a qubit simulation being classified into three possible results.

import trueq as tq
import numpy as np

# define a set of ideal POVM operators
ideal = np.array([[[1, 0], [0, 0]], [[0, 0], [0, 1]]])

# define a unitary rotation about X by 5 degrees
U = tq.Gate.from_generators("X", 5).mat

# define noisy POVM operators by rotating the ideal POVM operators by U
twisted = [U @ x @ U.conj().T for x in ideal]

# specify how the operations defined above will impact the simulation
# in this instance, the ideal POVMs will act on every qubit, except for
# qubit 0, which will have the twisted POVM (rotation about X)
povm = tq.math.Tensor(
    2, (2, 2),             # num of POVMs, (dimension, dimension)
    spawn=ideal,           # default measurement operation
    value={(0,): twisted}, # measurement operation on qubit 0
    dtype=np.complex128    # tensor is real by default
)

# initialize a simulator with the above POVM specifications.
sim = tq.Simulator().add_povm(povm)

# initialize a circuit
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0, ): tq.Gate.h}, {(0, 1): tq.Gate.cnot}])
circuit.measure_all()

# run the circuit on the simulator
sim.sample(circuit, 1000).plot()
../_images/simulation_7_0.png

This method additionally allows for what we call classification POVMs. This is a less general form of measurement noise, which can be expressed as inner products against the density matrix as described above, but which are more efficiently described as a transformation of the ideal measurement probability vector in the computational basis. In this case, we have \(p=Cq\) where \(p\) is the vector of outcome probabilities \(p_x\), \(C\) is a classification error matrix, and \(q\) is the vector of ideal measurement probabilities of \(\rho\) in the computational basis. For measurement noise that is uncorrelated between subsystems, \(C=C_1\otimes\cdots\otimes C_n\). This is entered as a Tensor with shape ((k,), (d,)) where k is the number of outcomes per qubit, and d is the Hilbert state dimension, which must match the simulation. Each column must sum to 1 for a probability preserving measurement.

import trueq as tq
import numpy as np

# classification error on qubit 0
p0 = np.array([[0.99, 0.02], [0.01, 0.98]])

# correlated classification error on qubits 1, 2
p12 = np.array([
    [0.99, 0.02, 0.0,  0.0],
    [0.01, 0.98, 0.05, 0.0],
    [0.0,  0.0,  0.94, 0.0],
    [0.0,  0.0,  0.01, 1.0]
])

povm = tq.math.Tensor(
    2, 2,                          # num of POVMs, dimension
    spawn=np.eye(2),               # default measurement operation
    value={(0,): p0, (1, 2): p12}, # errors
)

# initialize a simulator with the above POVM specifications.
sim = tq.Simulator().add_povm(povm)

# initialize a circuit
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0, 2): tq.Gate.h}, {(0, 1): tq.Gate.cnot}])
circuit.measure_all()

# run the circuit on the simulator
sim.sample(circuit, 1000).plot()
../_images/simulation_8_0.png
Parameters
  • povm (Tensor) – A tensor describing a POVM.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

add_prep(state, match=None)

Appends a state preparation description to this simulator that chooses which state to prepare whenever an operator is encountered in a circuit.

A state to add can be specified in any of the following formats:

  • A number between 0 and 1, representing a bitflip error probability of the ideal preparation \(|0\rangle\)

  • A length-\(d\) vector, representing a pure state

  • A \(d\times d\) matrix, representing a density matrix

If only one of the above is provided, it is used every time a Prep object is encountered. One can also specify that different subsystems get different errors by providing a dictionary mapping whose values are a combination of the above formats; see the examples below.

import trueq as tq

circuit = tq.Circuit([{i: tq.Prep() for i in range(3)}])

# add 5% bitflip error to any qubit
sim = tq.Simulator().add_prep(0.05)
print(sim.sample(circuit, float("inf")))

# add 2% bitflip error by default, but 5% for qubits 1 and 2
sim = tq.Simulator().add_prep({None: 0.02, 2: 0.05, 1: 0.05})
print(sim.sample(circuit, float("inf")))

# add specific density matrix to qubit 1, but 1% bitflip error by default
sim = tq.Simulator().add_prep({None: 0.01, 1: [[0.8, 0.1], [0.1, 0.2]]})
print(sim.sample(circuit, float("inf")))
Results({'000': 0.8573749999999999, '001': 0.045125, '010': 0.045125, '011': 0.0023750000000000004, '100': 0.045125, '101': 0.0023750000000000004, '110': 0.0023750000000000004, '111': 0.00012500000000000003})
Results({'000': 0.8844499999999998, '001': 0.04655, '010': 0.04655, '011': 0.0024500000000000004, '100': 0.01805, '101': 0.00095, '110': 0.00095, '111': 5e-05})
Results({'000': 0.78408, '001': 0.00792, '010': 0.19602, '011': 0.00198, '100': 0.00792, '101': 8e-05, '110': 0.00198, '111': 2e-05})

For state simulation, if a Prep operator is encountered on a subsystem that has previously been initialized, then the register is traced-out and the state is replaced with a new one. For operator simulation, Prep objects are taken as the partial-trace-with-replacement channel \(\rho\mapsto\mathrm{Tr}_\text{i}(\rho)\otimes\rho'\) where \(i\) is the subsystem label being prepared, \(\rho\) is the old state on all subsystems, and \(\rho'\) is the new state being prepared on \(i\). Although, note that operator() skips preparation objects by default.

Parameters
  • state (float | numpy.ndarray-like | dict) – A description of quantum states to initialize with.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If inconsistent dimensions are provided.

add_rcal_noise(fit_or_circuits)

Appends measurement classification error to this simulator, where errors are specified by confusion matrices estimated by the readout calibration protocol (RCAL).

fit_or_circuits should be either a circuit collection with results from the RCAL protocol, or an estimate collection containing the fit for an RCAL estimate. If no RCAL fitting information is found, or if there are multiple fits present in fit_or_circuits, an error will be raised.

import trueq as tq
import numpy as np

# generate RCAL circuits to measure the readout errors on qubits [0, 1]
circuits = tq.make_rcal([0, 1])

# initialize a mock device with a 20% readout error on every qubit
sim = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(0.2)

# run the circuits on the mock device to populate their results and
# estimate the readout error
sim.run(circuits, n_shots=1000)
fit = circuits.fit()

# instantiate a simulator with the RCAL estimate and report the results
# of running an example circuit with the new simulator
sim = tq.Simulator().add_rcal_noise(fit)
circuit = tq.Circuit({(0,1): tq.Gate.x}).measure_all()
sim.run(circuit, n_shots=np.inf)
circuit.results.plot()
../_images/simulation_10_0.png
Parameters

fit_or_circuits (EstimateCollection | CircuitCollection) – An estimate collection or a set of circuits which contain estimates of or circuits for the KNR protocol.

Raises

ValueError – If fit_or_circuits does not contain exactly one RCAL estimate.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

add_readout_error(default_error=None, errors=None, match=None)

Appends measurement classification error to this simulator, where errors are specified by confusion matrices. For qubits, errors can instead be specified by a single misclassification probability (symmetric readout error), or a pair of readout errors (asymmetric readout error, where the probability of misclassifying \(|0\rangle\) is different than \(|1\rangle\)).

Errors can differ on individual qubits by singling out their labels in the second argument, see the example below. Similarly, correlated errors can be added by specifying larger confusion matrices and the qubits they act on.

import trueq as tq

# make a test circuit that measures 4 qubits
circuit = tq.Circuit([{range(4): tq.Meas()}])

# all qubits get 1% readout error
sim = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(0.01)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 200))

# all qubits get 1% readout error, except qubit 1 gets 5% readout error
sim  = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(0.01, {1: 0.05})
print(sim.sample(circuit, 200))

# all qubits get 1% readout error, except qubit 1 get 5% readout error,
# and qubit 3 get asymmetric readout error of 1% on |0> and 7% on |1>
sim = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(0.01, {1: 0.05, 3: [0.01,0.07]})
print(sim.sample(circuit, 200))

# we specify correlated measurement errors on qubits (3, 2) with a 4x4
# confusion matrix (row/column order is 00, 01, 10, 11). all other qubits
# get 1% symmetric classification error.
confusion = [
        [0.81, 0.72, 0.72, 0.64],
        [0.09, 0.18, 0.08, 0.16],
        [0.06, 0.08, 0.18, 0.16],
        [0.04, 0.02, 0.02, 0.04]
    ]
sim = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(0.01, {(3,2):confusion})
print(sim.sample(circuit, 200))

# here we add asymmetric qutrit classification error to all three levels,
# where |0> is reported as a '0' 99% of the time, |1> is reported as a '1'
# 92% of the time, and |2> is reported as a '2' 80% of the time.
# off-diagonals are the probabilities of misclassification into specific
# outcomes corresponding to the row they are located in. we add this error
# specifically to qutrit 2, the rest of the qutrits have ideal measurements.
confusion = [[0.99, 0.03, 0.02], [0.005, 0.92, 0.18], [0.005, 0.05, 0.8]]
sim = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(errors={2: confusion})
print(sim.sample(circuit, 200))

# classify qutrit measurements into binary outcomes. this situation arises,
# for example, in superconducting qubits when there is leakage into the
# third level of the anharmonic oscillator, but readout always reports a '0'
# or a '1'. we use a rectangular confusion matrix where |2> is classified as
# a '0' 70% of the time, and as a '1' 30% of the time.
confusion = [[0.99, 0.08, 0.7], [0.01, 0.92, 0.3]]
sim = tq.Simulator().add_readout_error(confusion)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 200))
Results({'0000': 192, '0001': 2, '0010': 2, '0100': 3, '1000': 1})
Results({'0000': 186, '0010': 3, '0100': 10, '1000': 1})
Results({'0000': 181, '0001': 3, '0100': 13, '1000': 3})
Results({'0000': 161, '0010': 12, '0001': 13, '0011': 9, '0100': 1, '1000': 4})
Results({'0000': 199, '0020': 1}, dim=3)
Results({'0000': 198, '0010': 1, '0100': 1})
Parameters
  • default_error (numpy.ndarray-like | float) – Default readout error specificed as a confusion matrix to be applied to all qubits that don’t receive special errors in errors. For qubits, the confusion matrix can be replaced by a single number or pair of numbers for symmetric and asymmetric classification error, respectively. The default is no error.

  • errors (dict) – A dictionary mapping tuples of qubit labels to confusion matrices. For qubits, confusion matrices can be replaced by a single number or pair of numbers for symmetric and asymmetric classification error, respectively.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – For any inconsistencies in the input arguments.

add_relaxation(t1, t2, t_single, t_multi, excited_pop=0, match=None)

Appends a noise source to this simulator that adds \(T_1\) and \(T_2\) relaxation noise to the simulation. Specifically, for every cycle in a circuit, this noise source adds error to every qubit in the state defined by the Choi matrix:

\[\begin{split}C = \begin{pmatrix} 1-p(1-e^{-t/T_1}) & 0 & 0 & e^{-t/T_2} \\ 0 & (1-p)e^{-t/T_1} & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & pe^{-t/T_1} & 0 \\ e^{-t/T_2} & 0 & 0 & 1-(1-p)e^{-t/T_1} \end{pmatrix}\end{split}\]

where \(t\) is the time of the longest gate in the cycle (i.e. either t_single or t_multi for an entire cycle).

import trueq

circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0,1): tq.Gate.cx, 2: tq.Gate.h}])

# make a simulator with relaxation noise with t1=100e-6, t2=50e-6,
# single-qubit gate time 25e-9, two-qubit gate time 100e-9 and an excited
# equilibrium population 0.01.
sim = tq.Simulator().add_relaxation(100e-6, 50e-6, 25e-9, 100e-9, 0.01)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# make a simulator with relaxation noise with t1=10us, single-qubit gate
# time 25ns and two-qubit gate time 100ns. t2=5us on all qubits except qubit
# 0 which has t2=2.5us.
t2 = {None: 5e-6, 0: 2.5e-6}
sim = tq.Simulator().add_relaxation(10e-6, t2, 25e-9, 100e-9)
# plot the final state
tq.visualization.plot_mat(sim.state(circuit).mat())
Results({'000': 510, '001': 489, '011': 1})
../_images/simulation_12_1.png
Parameters
  • t1 (float | dict) – The \(T_1\) time, i.e. the characteristic time of relaxation. These can vary from qubit to qubit, see the example above.

  • t2 (float | dict) – The \(T_2\) time, i.e. the characteristic time of dephasing. These can vary from qubit to qubit, see the example above.

  • t_single (float) – The time it takes to perform a single-qubit gate.

  • t_multi (float) – The time it takes to perform a multi-qubit gate.

  • excited_pop (float | dict) – The excited state population at equilibrium.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If invalid \(T_1\) and \(T_2\) arguments are provided.

add_stochastic_pauli(px=0, py=0, pz=0, match=None)

Appends a noise source to this simulator that introduces stochastic Pauli noise. This is done by applying the following single-qubit Kraus operators to every qubit that is explicitly acted upon by a gate in a given cycle:

\[\begin{split}K_1 &= \sqrt{1-p_x-p_y-p_z} \mathcal{I} \\ K_2 &= \sqrt{p_x} \sigma_x \\ K_3 &= \sqrt{p_y} \sigma_y \\ K_4 &= \sqrt{p_z} \sigma_z\end{split}\]

Note that this is noise only—it does not try to implement the cycle in question, but only adds noise to it.

By default, this noise is applied to every system being acted on by a gate in a given cycle. For example, if qubits (0,1) get a CNOT, and qubit 3 gets an X in a given cycle, then stochastic Pauli noise is applied to only these three qubits, even if the preceeding cycle acted on qubit 2. The match argument can be used to specify under which conditions the stochastic Pauli noise should be applied, see Match for more information.

import trueq as tq

circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0,1): tq.Gate.cx, 2: tq.Gate.x, 3: tq.Gate.h}])

# initialize a simulator in which every location where a gate acts undergoes
# Pauli noise with px=0.01 and py=0.04
sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01, py=0.04)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))

# initialize a simulator where every X gate undergoes Pauli noise with
# py=pz=0 and px=0.04
noisy_gate = tqs.GateMatch(tq.Gate.x)
sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.04, match = noisy_gate)
print(sim.sample(circuit, 1000))
Results({'0000': 24, '0001': 25, '0010': 432, '0011': 442, '0100': 2, '0101': 2, '0110': 12, '0111': 18, '1010': 3, '1011': 1, '1100': 1, '1101': 1, '1110': 20, '1111': 17})
Results({'0000': 27, '0001': 31, '0010': 466, '0011': 476})
Parameters
  • px (float) – The probability of an X error.

  • py (float) – The probability of a Y error.

  • pz (float) – The probability of a Z error.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Returns

This simulator instance so that add_*() calls can be chained.

Return type

Simulator

Raises

ValueError – If the probabilities of X, Y, and Z errors sum to more than 1.

append_noise_source(noise_source)

Appends a noise source to the simulator. A noise source in an instance of some subclass of NoiseSource, which includes custom user subclasses.

The order in which noise sources are added is the order in which they will be applied (cycle by cycle) during simulation.

Parameters

noise_source (NoiseSource) – A source of noise to be added to the simulator.

Returns

This simulator instance.

Return type

Simulator

dressed_noise(cycle, labels_list, n_randomizations=None, twirl='P', compiler=None)

Computes the dressed noise of the given cycle for every list of labels in labels_list. The dressed noise superoperator is defined as

\[\mathcal{E} = \mathbb{E}[ \mathcal{T}^\dagger \mathcal{C}^\dagger \tilde{\mathcal{C}} \tilde{\mathcal{T}} ]\]

where \(\mathcal{C}\) is the cycle of interest, \(\tilde{\mathcal{C}}\) its noisy simulation, \(\mathcal{T}\) an element of the twirling group, \(\tilde{\mathcal{T}}\) its noisy simulation, and where the expectation is taken uniformly over the twirling group.

The expectation value is taken in one of two ways. If n_randomizations=None, twirling operations are assumed to be perfect so that the expectation value is a simple function of the diagonal elements of the superoperator \(\mathcal{C}^\dagger \tilde{\mathcal{C}}\) in the Pauli vectorization basis. Otherwise, the expectation is computed using n_randomizations Monte-Carlo samples from the twirling group, each of which is simulated with this simulator.

Parameters
  • cycle (Cycle) – The cycle to find the dressed noise of.

  • labels_list (Iterable) – A list of lists of labels. Simulations are performed once on all labels present, and marginalizations are performed on each of these lists afterwards.

  • n_randomizations (int | NoneType) – The number of random twirls to average over. If None, the twirling group is assumed to have a perfect implementation.

  • twirl (Twirl | str) – The twirling group to use.

  • compiler (Compiler) – A compiler to run all cycles through before simulating them.

Returns

A list of Tensors, corresponding to the given labels_list. The tensors report Pauli probabilities of the Pauli Kraus map.

Return type

list

predict_cb(cycle, labels=None, n_randomizations=50, targeted_errors=None, twirl='P', compiler=None)

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_cb() with this simulator.

import trueq as tq

sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01).add_overrotation(0.04)

sim.predict_cb({0: tq.Gate.id, (1,2): tq.Gate.cnot})
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CB
Cycle Benchmarking
Paulis

(0,) : Gate.id

(1, 2) : Gate.cx

Key:
  • cycles: (Cycle((0,): Gate.id, (1, 2): Gate.cx),)
  • labels: (0, 1, 2)
  • name:
  • protocol: CB
  • twirl: Paulis on [0, 1, 2]
${e}_{F}$
The probability of an error acting on the specified labels during a dressed cycle of interest.
6.7e-02 (0.0e+00)
0.06661055369714652, 0.0
${e}_{III}$
The probability of the subscripted error acting on the specified labels.
9.3e-01 (0.0e+00)
0.9333894463028535, 0.0
Parameters
  • cycle (dict | Cycle) – The cycle to make the prediction for.

  • labels (Iterable) – A list of which sets of system labels are to be twirled together in each circuit, e.g. [3, [1, 2], 4].

  • n_randomizations (int | NoneType) – The number of random twirls to average over. If None, the twirling group is assumed to have a perfect implementation.

  • targeted_errors (Iterable) – A list of Pauli strings, e.g. ["ZIZIZ", "XYXYX"] that specify which errors to target. By default, the Pauli "I" * n_qubits is used to estimate the probability of no error, i.e. the process fidelity.

  • twirl (Twirl | str) – The twirling group to use.

  • compiler (Compiler) – A compiler to run all cycles through before simulating them.

Return type

EstimateCollection

Raises

ValueError – If targeted_errors are not all Pauli strings of the correct length.

predict_irb(cycle, n_randomizations=50, twirl='C', compiler=None)

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_irb() with this simulator.

import trueq as tq

sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01).add_overrotation(0, 0.1)

sim.predict_irb({0: tq.Gate.id, (1,2): tq.Gate.cnot})
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IRB
Interleaved Randomized Benchmarking
Cliffords

(0,) : Gate.id

(1, 2) : Gate.cx

Key:
  • cycles: (Cycle((0,): Gate.id, (1, 2): Gate.cx),)
  • labels: (0,)
  • name:
  • protocol: IRB
  • twirl: Cliffords on [0, (1, 2)]
Cliffords

(0,) : Gate.id

(1, 2) : Gate.cx

Key:
  • cycles: (Cycle((0,): Gate.id, (1, 2): Gate.cx),)
  • labels: (1, 2)
  • name:
  • protocol: IRB
  • twirl: Cliffords on [0, (1, 2)]
${e}_{F}$
The probability of an error acting on the targeted systems during a dressed gate of interest.
2.0e-02 (0.0e+00)
0.019862000000000157, 0.0
7.9e-02 (0.0e+00)
0.07913618877832151, 0.0
${p}$
Decay parameter of the exponential decay $Ap^m$.
9.8e-01 (0.0e+00)
0.9801379999999998, 0.0
9.2e-01 (0.0e+00)
0.9208638112216785, 0.0
Parameters
  • cycle (dict | Cycle) – The cycle to make the prediction for.

  • n_randomizations (int | NoneType) – The number of random twirls to average over. If None, the twirling group is assumed to have a perfect implementation.

  • twirl (Twirl | str) – The twirling group to use.

  • compiler (Compiler) – A compiler to run all cycles through before simulating them.

Return type

EstimateCollection

predict_knr(cycle, n_bodies=1, n_randomizations=50, twirl='P', compiler=None)

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_knr() with this simulator.

import trueq as tq

sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01).add_overrotation(0, 0.1)

cycle = {0: tq.Gate.h, (1,2): tq.Gate.cnot}
prediction = sim.predict_knr(cycle, n_bodies=2)
prediction.plot.knr_heatmap()
../_images/simulation_16_0.png
Parameters
  • cycle (dict | Cycle) – The cycle to make the prediction for.

  • n_randomizations (int | NoneType) – The number of random twirls to average over. If None, the twirling group is assumed to have a perfect implementation.

  • twirl (Twirl | str) – The twirling group to use.

  • compiler (Compiler) – A compiler to run all cycles through before simulating them.

Return type

EstimateCollection

Raises
  • ValueError – If the twirl is missing subsystems present in the cycle.

  • ValueError – If the subsystems in the twirl partially overlap with those in the cycle.

predict_srb(labels, n_randomizations=50, twirl='C', compiler=None)

Predicts the estimates that would be generated by simulating make_srb() with this simulator.

import trueq as tq

sim = tq.Simulator().add_stochastic_pauli(px=0.01).add_overrotation(0.04)

prediction = sim.predict_srb([0, [1,2]])
prediction += sim.predict_srb([0])
prediction += sim.predict_srb([[1, 2]])
prediction.plot.compare_rb()
../_images/simulation_17_0.png
Parameters
  • labels (Iterable) – A list of which sets of system labels are to be twirled together in each circuit, e.g. [3, [1, 2], 4].

  • n_randomizations (int | NoneType) – The number of random twirls to average over. If None, the twirling group is assumed to have a perfect implementation.

  • twirl (Twirl | str) – The twirling group to use.

  • compiler (Compiler) – A compiler to run all cycles through before simulating them.

Return type

EstimateCollection

state(circuit)

Returns the quantum state that results from simulating the given circuit.

If this simulator contains only unitary errors and pure state preparations, a pure state will be simulated and returned, otherwise, a density matrix will be simulated and returned. Unless this simulator contains a special preparation (see e.g. add_prep()), every qubit in the circuit will be prepared with the state \(|0\rangle\).

import trueq as tq

# make a circuit with two clock cycles
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0, ): tq.Gate.h}, {(0, 1): tq.Gate.cnot}])

# simulate the circuit to find the final pure state
psi = tq.Simulator().state(circuit)
print("Pure state: ", psi.mat())

# if we add depolarizing noise we get a density matrix
rho = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.01).state(circuit)
print("Density matrix: ", rho.mat())

# we can get outcome probabilities from the state
print("Pure state probabilities:     ", psi.probabilities())
print("Density matrix probabilities: ", rho.probabilities())

# and we can convert them to Result objects
print("Pure state as results:     ", psi.probabilities().to_results())
print("Density matrix as results: ", rho.probabilities().to_results())
Pure state:  [0.70710678+0.j 0.        +0.j 0.        +0.j 0.70710678+0.j]
Density matrix:  [[0.4975    +0.j 0.        +0.j 0.        +0.j 0.48759975+0.j]
 [0.        +0.j 0.0025    +0.j 0.00245025+0.j 0.        +0.j]
 [0.        +0.j 0.00245025+0.j 0.0025    +0.j 0.        +0.j]
 [0.48759975+0.j 0.        +0.j 0.        +0.j 0.4975    +0.j]]
Pure state probabilities:      Tensor(<[(2,), ()] on labels [(0, 1)]>)
Density matrix probabilities:  Tensor(<[(2,), ()] on labels [(0, 1)]>)
Pure state as results:      Results({'00': 0.5000000000000001, '11': 0.5000000000000001})
Density matrix as results:  Results({'00': 0.4975000000000001, '01': 0.002500000000000001, '10': 0.002500000000000001, '11': 0.4975000000000001})
Parameters

circuit (Circuit) – A circuit to find the final state of.

Return type

StateTensor

Raises

NotImplementedError – If the circuit contains measurements before the final cycle.

operator(circuit)

Returns the unitary or superoperator that results from simulating the given circuit.

If this simulator contains only unitary errors and pure state preparations, a unitary will be simulated and returned, otherwise, a superoperator will be simulated and returned.

import trueq as tq

# make a circuit with two clock cycles
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0, ): tq.Gate.h}, {(0, 1): tq.Gate.cnot}])

# simulate the circuit to find the final unitary
u = tq.Simulator().operator(circuit)
tq.visualization.plot_mat(u.mat())

# if we add depolarizing noise we get a superoperator
s = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.01).operator(circuit)
print("Super operator shape: ", s.mat().shape)
Super operator shape:  (16, 16)
../_images/simulation_19_1.png

Note

By default, this method skips Prep and Meas operators.

Parameters

circuit (Circuit) – A circuit to find the final operator of.

Returns

The effective operator of the circuit after simulation.

Return type

OperatorTensor

Raises

NotImplementedError – If the last cycle in the circuit contains measurements on some qubits but not all.

sample(circuit, n_shots=50)

Samples ditstrings from the final state of the simulated circuit. In contrast to run(), this method does not update the results of the circuit.

import trueq as tq

# make a circuit with two clock cycles and a measurement round
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0, ): tq.Gate.h}, {(0, 1): tq.Gate.cnot}])
circuit.measure_all()

# instantiate a simulator with depolarizing and overrotation noise
sim = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.01).add_overrotation(0.04)

# sample 100 shots from the final state of the circuit
print(sim.sample(circuit, 100))
Results({'00': 44, '11': 56})
Parameters
  • circuit (Circuit) – A single circuit.

  • n_shots (int | float("inf")) – The number of shots to sample. The final state of the circuit is simulated once and shots are drawn from the resulting probability distribution. Or, if this value is infinity-like (e.g. float("inf") or numpy.inf) then results are populated with the exact simulated probabilities.

Return type

Results

run(circuits, n_shots=50, overwrite=None, max_workers=1)

Updates the results attribute of each given circuit by simulating its final quantum state and sampling shots from it.

import trueq as tq

# make a circuit with two clock cycles and a measurement round
circuit = tq.Circuit([{(0, ): tq.Gate.h}, {(0, 1): tq.Gate.cnot}])
circuit.measure_all()

# initialize a simulator with no noise
sim = tq.Simulator()

# run the circuit on the simulator 100 times to populate the results
sim.run(circuit, n_shots=100)
print(circuit.results)

# instantiate a simulator with depolarizing and overrotation noise
sim = tq.Simulator().add_depolarizing(0.01).add_overrotation(0.04)

# we can also use run to evaluate circuit collections generated by protocols
# like CB, SRB, IRB, and XRB on a simulator:
circuits = tq.make_srb([0], [5, 50, 100], 30)
sim.run(circuits, n_shots=100)
circuits.plot.raw()
Results({'00': 47, '11': 53})
../_images/simulation_21_1.png
Parameters
  • circuits (Circuit | Iterable) – A single circuit or an iterable of circuits.

  • n_shots (int | float("inf")) – The number of shots to sample. The final state of the circuit is simulated once and shots are drawn from the resulting probability distribution. Or, if this value is infinity-like (e.g. float("inf") or numpy.inf) then results are populated with the exact simulated probabilities.

  • overwrite (bool | NoneType) – If False, a circuit that already has results will have new simulation results added to the old results. If True or None, old results will be erased and replaced with new results, though a warning will be raised in the latter case of None (default).

  • max_workers (int | NoneType) – The maximum number of workers to use when parallelizing this simulation over circuits. A value of None defaults to the number of processors on the machine. This feature is not available on Windows, which defaults to serial simulation.

CircuitPropagator

class trueq.simulation.simulator.CircuitPropagator(obj, noise_sources)

A helper class to Simulator that abstracts the logic of iterating through the cycles of a circuit and applying noise sources to whatever kind of state is provided.

During initialization of this class, the constructor checks if any of the NoiseSources added to the simulator have specified required dimensions via the noise source’s dimension, dim, and ensures they match the subsystem dimensions of the Circuit to be simulated. If there is a dimension mismatch, an error will be raised. An additional error will be raised if a measurement occurs before the last cycle within the circuit.

Each noise source will, in order, attempt to create a cache of information about the circuit. For more information, see make_circuit_cache().

Parameters
  • obj (Circuit | Cycle | list | dict) – A circuit (a list of cycles) or a cycle (a dictionary of operations) to be propagated. If neither, an error is raised.

  • noise_sources (list) – A list of noise sources.

Raises
  • ValueError – If obj isn’t recognized as a circuit or a cycle, and if a NoiseSource has a specified dimension which does not match the subsystem dimensions of obj.

  • NotImplementedError – If there are measurements before the last cycle of a circuit.

propagate(state)

Cycle by cycle, this function gives each noise source, in order, the opportunity to mutate the state, effectively simulating the Circuit.

Parameters

state (StateTensor | OperatorTensor) – The initial state undergoing propagation.

Returns

The final state at the end of simulation.

Return type

StateTensor | OperatorTensor

Raises

NotImplementedError – If a measurement is found in a cycle prior to the last cycle in the circuit.

Match

class trueq.simulation.match.Match(exclusive=False)

A class whose purpose is to filter the operations presented to a given NoiseSource in a Simulator instance. This is typically used by a noise source to specify, for example, which gate, label, and cycle combinations to apply noise to. This base class is a pass-through that does not do any filtering except the following which is common to all noise sources:

  • Any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

The match also defines iter_* functions, which are called by NoiseSources, and return an iterator of pairs of Operations and labels (tuples). The noise source function called during propagation, apply(), does not call iter() directly, which returns an iterator of OpWrappers, but instead calls to the match via the iter_* wrapper functions, meaning that a NoiseSource does not (and should not) need to interact with a OpWrapper.

Two or more matches can be joined together with & (AndMatch) and | (OrMatch) that restrict operations to the intersection of matches, or the union of matches, respectively. This is seen in the following examples:

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs

# Create a match that matches only X gates.
noisy_x = tqs.GateMatch(tq.Gate.x)

# Create a match that matches only Y gates.
noisy_y = tqs.GateMatch(tq.Gate.y)

# Create a match that matches any operation acting on a subset of labels
# (2, 4).
noisy_labels = tqs.LabelMatch((2,4))

# Single label matches can send in the label as an integer instead of a tuple
# of length 1. This match matches all operations on qubit 0.
zero_match = tqs.LabelMatch(0)

# A match which prevents subsequent noise sources from seeing operations
# that are matched with this one.
no_more_match = tqs.Match(exclusive=True)

# Create a match that restricts to X gates and any gate on qubits 2 and 4
noise_restriction = tqs.OrMatch(noisy_x, noisy_labels)

# Equivalently, we can use ``|``
noise_restriction = noisy_x | noisy_labels

# Create a match that restricts to X gates only on qubits 2 and 4
noise_restriction = tqs.AndMatch(noisy_x, noisy_labels)

# Equivalently, we can use ``&``
noise_restriction = noisy_x & noisy_labels

# Create a match that restricts to Y gates on qubits 2 and 4, and any X gates
compound_match = (noisy_y & noisy_labels) | noisy_x

# The following produce equivalent match behaviour:
equiv1 = noisy_x | noisy_y
equiv2 = tqs.GateMatch([tq.Gate.x, tq.Gate.y])
iter(op_type, cycle_wrappers, noise_only=True, update_flags=True)

Iterates through the operations in the most recent cycle in cycle_wrappers, yielding every operation of type op_type that is matched by this instance and that has not yet been marked for no further simulation via Opwrapper.no_more_noise.

Parameters
  • op_type (Gate | Meas | Prep) – The type of Operation to extract from the cycle_wrapper.

  • cycle_wrappers (list) – A list of CycleWrappers, with the last one being the most recent.

  • noise_only (bool) – Whether to mark the OpWrapper as has_been_simulated after it has been yielded.

  • update_flags (bool) – Whether to mutate OpWrapper flags when an operation is yielded. Only composite matches such as AndMatch should consider setting this to False.

Returns

An iterator of OpWrappers with operations of type op_type

Return type

Iterable

iter_gates(cycle_wrappers, noise_only=True)

Yields pairs (labels, gate) in the most recent cycle in cycle_wrappers where gate is a Gate that is matched by this instance.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – A list of CycleWrappers, with the last one being the most recent.

  • noise_only (bool) – Whether to mark the OpWrapper as has_been_simulated after it has been yielded.

Returns

An iterator of labels and operators.

Return type

Iterable

iter_meas(cycle_wrappers, noise_only=True)

Yields pairs (labels, meas) in the most recent cycle in cycle_wrappers where meas is a Meas that is matched by this instance.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – A list of CycleWrappers, with the last one being the most recent.

  • noise_only (bool) – Whether to mark the OpWrapper as has_been_simulated after it has been yielded.

Returns

An iterator of labels and operators.

Return type

Iterable

iter_prep(cycle_wrappers, noise_only=True)

Yields pairs (labels, prep) in the most recent cycle in cycle_wrappers where prep is a Prep that is matched by this instance.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – A list of CycleWrappers, with the last one being the most recent.

  • noise_only (bool) – Whether to mark the OpWrapper as has_been_simulated after it has been yielded.

Returns

An iterator of labels and operators.

Return type

Iterable

class trueq.simulation.match.AndMatch(*matches, exclusive=None)

Instances of this class match operations that match the intersection of the given matches. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any operation that matches all of the given matches.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters
  • *matches – One or more Matches of any type.

  • exclusive (bool | NoneType) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.AssociativeMatch(*matches, exclusive=None)

Abstract parent class for children C that stores a list of Matches and have the property that C([A, C([B, C])) and C([A, B, C]) share the same behaviour. This flattening process is performed automatically by the constructor when AssociativeMatches of the same type are encountered.

Parameters
  • *matches – One or more Matches of any type.

  • exclusive (bool | NoneType) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.GateMatch(gates, exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match a fixed set of gates. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any gate in gates.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters
  • gates (Gate | Iterable) – A gate or iterable of gates.

  • exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.LabelMatch(labels, strict=True, exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match operations whose qubit labels correspond to a specified set of labels. Operations are matched as follows:

  • If strict is true, operations whose labels are a strict subset of this instance’s labels are yielded.

  • If strict is False, operations whose labels have some intersection with this instance’s labels are yielded.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

For example, a LabelMatch initialized with the label 0 will match to single-qubit operations on label 0, regardless of the value of strict. If strict is False, it will also match to any multi-qubit operations on label 0, like a CNOT gate over labels 0 and 1.

Parameters
  • labels (tuple) – A tuple of integers representing the labels to be matched.

  • strict (bool) – Determines if label matching is performed by subset or by intersection.

  • exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.NQubitMatch(n_sys, exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match operations that act on only n_sys qubit labels. Operations are matched as follows:

  • All operations that act on a n_sys qubit labels.

  • Any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters
  • n_sys (int) – An integer defining the number of qubit labels upon which an operator must act on order to be matched by this instance.

  • exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.NativeMatch(name, exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match operations that are NativeGates with a specified name. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any native gate with a name that matches name is returned.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

The following example showcases this behaviour:

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs

# match all native gates with the name "rz"
match = tqs.NativeMatch("rz")
Parameters
  • name – A string for matching to names of native gates.

  • exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.OrMatch(*matches, exclusive=None)

Instances of this class match operations that match the union of the specified set of matches. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any operation that matches any of the given matches.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters
  • *matches – One or more Matches of any type.

  • exclusive (bool | NoneType) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.R90Match(exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match qubit gates that can be represented as a 90 degree rotation about an axis within the XY plane. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any qubit gate that is a 90 degree rotation about an axis within the XY plane.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters

exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

Raises

RuntimeError – Throws an error if the cycle is not from a qubit circuit.

class trueq.simulation.match.SingleQubitMatch(exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match operations that act on only a single qubit label. Operations are matched as follows:

  • All operations that act on a single qubit label.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters

exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

Cycle Matches

class trueq.simulation.match.BaseCycleMatch(lag=0, exclusive=False)

Abstract parent class for children that match against all operations in a Cycle as a whole, rather than single operations at a time. Children of this class can specify custom cycle matching functions by overwriting check_match(). Two or more matches can be joined together with & (AndCycleMatch) and | (OrCycleMatch) that restrict operations to the intersection of matches, or the union of matches, respectively. Cycle matches can be initialized such that they match on the past cycles via the lag parameter, allowing for the possibility of non-Markovian noise.

import trueq as tq
import trueq.simulation as tqs

cyc_h = tq.Cycle({0: tq.Gate.h})
cyc_cx = tq.Cycle({(0,1): tq.Gate.cx})
cyc_cx_alt = tq.Cycle({(0,2): tq.Gate.cx})

# create a match which matches if the previous cycle was ``cyc_h``
m_past = tqs.CycleMatch(cyc_h, lag=1)

# create a match which matches if the current cycle is ``cyc_cx``
m_present = tqs.CycleMatch(cyc_cx)

# create equivalent matches which match if the previous cycle was ``cyc_h``
# and the current cycle is ``cyc_cx``
m_joint = m_past & m_present
m_joint_alt = tqs.AndCycleMatch(m_past, m_present)

# create a match which matches if the previous cycle was an H gate on
# ``0`` and the current cycle is a CNOT on either ``(0,1)`` or ``(0,2)``
m_cx_2 = tqs.CycleMatch(cyc_cx_alt)
m_entangling = m_past & (m_present | m_cx_2)
Parameters
  • lag (int) – This instance will match to the cycle which occured lag cycles in the past. By default, this is 0, and matches to the present cycle.

  • exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

check_match(cycle_wrappers)

Abstract method to be overwritten by children which defines the cycle matching function. This function should return True if the desired cycle within cycle_wrappers matches the conditions of the match, and False otherwise.

Parameters

cycle_wrappers (list) – A list of CycleWrappers to match against.

property lag

Returns the number of cycles this match instance lags the present cycle by.

Returns

The number of cycles behind the current cycle being matched to.

Type

int

find_matches(cycle_wrappers)

If the cycle_wrappers match to this instance, this method returns this match object in a list, or an empty list otherwise. This instance’s matching function is given by check_match().

Parameters

cycle_wrappers (list) – A list of CycleWrappers to match against.

Returns

A list containing this match instance if the cycle matches, and an empty list otherwise.

Return type

list

class trueq.simulation.match.AndCycleMatch(*matches, exclusive=None)

Instances of this class match operations that match the intersection of the given matches. All matches must be children of BaseCycleMatch. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any operation that matches all of the given matches.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters
  • *matches – One or more BaseCycleMatches of any type.

  • exclusive (bool | NoneType) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.AssociativeCycleMatch(*matches, exclusive=None)

Abstract parent class for children C that stores a list of BaseCycleMatches and have the property that C([A, C([B, C])) and C([A, B, C]) share the same behaviour. This flattening process is performed automatically by the constructor when AssociativeCycleMatches of the same type are encountered.

Parameters
  • *matches – One or more BaseCycleMatches of any type.

  • exclusive (bool | NoneType) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

Raises

ValueError – If any match in matches is not a child class of BaseCycleMatch.

class trueq.simulation.match.CycleMatch(cycle, ignore_marker=True, ignore_id=False, lag=0, exclusive=False)

Instances of this class match all operations in a given cycle equivalent to the cycle used to instantiate this instance. By default, cycle equivalence means cycle equality, but the boolean arguments ignore_marker and ignore_id allow three more variants of cycle equivalence. Operations are matched as follows:

  • All operations in a cycle if the cycle is equivalent to one of cycles.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Additionally, this match instance has the ability to match on previously simulated cycles, allowing for the possibility of non-Markovian noise sources. By initializing an instance of this match with lag > 0, the instance will match on the cycle simulated lag cycles ago. By default, lag is 0 and matches on the cycle currently being simulated. This match will not match until lag cycles have been simulated.

Parameters
  • cycle (Cycle) – A cycle to match against.

  • ignore_marker (bool) – Whether to ignore the marker values of cycles. Default is True.

  • ignore_id (bool) – Whether to treat all identity gates as though they are not present. Default is False.

  • lag (int) – This instance will match to the cycle which occured lag cycles in the past. By default, this is 0, and matches to the present cycle.

  • exclusive (bool) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

class trueq.simulation.match.OrCycleMatch(*matches, exclusive=None)

Instances of this class match operations that match the union of the given matches. All matches must be children of BaseCycleMatch. Operations are matched as follows:

  • Any operation that matches any of the given matches.

  • However, any presented OpWrapper where no_more_noise is True is skipped.

Parameters
  • *matches – One or more BaseCycleMatches of any type.

  • exclusive (bool | NoneType) – Whether to mark every operation yielded during iteration as no_more_noise. In any future iterations by any Match an operation with this marking will be skipped.

NoiseSource

class trueq.simulation.add_cycle_noise.CycleReplacementNoise(replacement, match, cycle_offset=0, dim=2)

A noise source which can insert or replace entire cycles during simulation; see add_cycle_noise() for more information.

Parameters
  • replacement (Cycle | dict | function) – A cycle-like, or function which takes a cycle and returns a cycle-like, to be inserted when the noise source matches.

  • match (BaseCycleMatch) – An instance of a cycle match for determining which cycles this noise source will match to.

  • cycle_offset (int) – Whether to insert the replacement cycle before (-1), in place of (0), or after (+1) the cycles matched by this noise source.

  • dim (int) – An integer representing the dimension of the subsystem upon which the noise source acts. dim is 2, representing qubits, by default.

Raises

ValueError – If the match is not a cycle match instance, the cycle_offset is not -1, 0, or 1, or if replacement generates a cycle with invalid dimensions.

iter_cycle_like(cycle_or_dict)

Yields the labels and matrices extracted from cycle_or_dict which can be applied directly during simulation. Each matrix is a representation of the Gates or Superop contained in cycle_or_dict. Any specified superoperators or multi-qubit gates must act on the same number of systems as their labels, while single-qubit gates can be defined over many systems.

Parameters

cycle_or_dict (Cycle | dict) – A cycle-like to be converted into a ready to apply iterable of labels and matrices.

Returns

An iterator of labels and arrays.

Return type

Iterable

Raises

ValueError – If cycle_or_dict contains operations with invalid dimensions.

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies the cycle replacement noise to the state of the circuit. If the noise is replacing the simulation of the current cycle, or being inserted after the current cycle, then noise_only will be set to False. For the case of inserting noise after the current cycle, the current cycle is first ideally simulated and then the inserted cycle is simulated immediately afterwards.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation.

  • state (Tensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

class trueq.simulation.add_basic.GateReplaceNoise(fn, match=None)

A noise source that replaces all valid Gates present in the circuit with the returned valued of fn; see add_gate_replace() for details.

Parameters
  • fn (function) – A function which takes in a gate and returns a gate with the same dimensions.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Raises

ValueError – If the new gate does not match the dimensions of the gate that it is replacing.

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies fn to every matched gate in the cycle, and then attempts to apply the new gate to the state. The gate returned by fn must match the dimensions of the gate it replaces.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. This noise source only uses the last one.

  • state (StateTensor | OperatorTensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

Raises

ValueError – If the new gate does not match the dimensions of the gate that it is replacing.

class trueq.simulation.add_cycle_noise.KNRNoise(fit_or_circuits, exclusive=False, ignore_identity=False, ignore_marker=True)

A noise source which reconstructs the noise of each cycle for each KNR experiment in fit_or_circuits; see the KNR guide and add_knr_noise() for details.

Parameters
  • fit_or_circuits (EstimateCollection | CircuitCollection) – An estimate collection or a set of circuits which contain estimates of or circuits for the KNR protocol.

  • exclusive (bool) – If True, all gates within the targeted cycles will be marked as no_more_noise during simulation. This is False by default.

  • ignore_identity (bool) – Whether or not to match this noise to cycles containing identical operations, ignoring any identity operators. This is False by default.

  • ignore_marker (bool) – If True, match this noise to cycles which contain the same operations but have differet markers. This is True by default.

Raises

ValueError – If a cycle in the fit_or_circuits appears in the fit multiple times, or if the fit is empty.

static knr_superop(estimate)

Determines the Superop representing the one-body noise acting on the gate-body estimated by estimate, as fitted by the KNR protocol. The superoperator is given by a Pauli transfer matrix, see from_ptm() for more information.

Parameters

estimate (NormalEstimate) – The estimate containing the fit information for the gate-body.

Returns

The reconstructed superoperator for the KNR estimate.

Return type

Superop

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies the computed Pauli transfer matrix superoperator to each Cycle within the Circuit whose KNR results were used to instantiate this instance.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. This noise source only uses the last one.

  • state (Tensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

class trueq.simulation.add_basic.KrausNoise(kraus_ops, match=None, dim=2)

A noise source that adds Kraus noise; see add_kraus() for details. On initialization, the constructor copies and reshapes the Kraus operators to prepare for direct application to the state as a superoperator.

Parameters
  • kraus_ops (Iterable) – An iterable of square matrices, each of which must be the same size, and acting on subsystems of dimension dim.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

  • dim (int) – An integer representing the dimension of the subsystem upon which the Kraus operators act. dim is 2, representing qubits, by default.

Raises

ValueError – If kraus_ops has the wrong dimension or is not a list of square matrices of the same dimension.

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies the Kraus operators to the state on each label containing gates that match with match. If it encounters a multi-qubit gate, and does not have Kraus operators specifically defined for the number of subspaces upon which the gate acts, then it will apply single-qubit Kraus operators to each subsystem instead. This noise source does not attempt to simulate the gates in the cycle.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. This noise source only uses the last one.

  • state (StateTensor | OperatorTensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

Raises

ValueError – If a multi-qubit Kraus channel matches to a multi-qubit gate with a larger dimension.

class trueq.simulation.add_basic.OverrotationNoise(single_sys, multi_sys, match=None)

A noise source that adds overrotation, a unitary error; see add_overrotation() for details.

Parameters
  • single_sys (float) – The amount of overrotation to add to single-qubit gates, computed by exponentiating the target gate by 1 + single_sys.

  • multi_sys (float) – The amount of overrotation to add to multi-qubit gates, computed by exponentiating the target gate by 1 + multi_sys.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies all the gates that match with match to the state, with overrotation. Gates are cached on first application, and read from the cache thereafter.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. This noise source only uses the last one.

  • state (StateTensor | OperatorTensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

class trueq.simulation.add_basic.RelaxationNoise(t1, t2, t_single, t_multi, excited_pop=0, match=None)

A noise source that adds relaxation noise, a noise restricted to qubits; see add_relaxation() for details. Relaxation noise simulates a \(T_1\) and \(T_2\) process on the qubits, in an idealized manner assuming that gates happen instantaneously, and that the relaxation occurs before any ideal operation is simulated.

Parameters
  • t1 (float | dict) – The \(T_1\) time, i.e. the characteristic time of relaxation.

  • t2 (float | dict) – The \(T_2\) time, i.e. the characteristic time of dephasing.

  • t_single (float) – The idealized time it takes for single-qubit cycles to run.

  • t_multi (float) – The idealized time it takes for multi-qubit cycles to run.

  • excited_pop (float | dict) – The excited state population at equilibrium.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

make_circuit_cache(circuit)

Instantiates a cache object that will be made available to apply() as circuit_cache for each call within the circuit. The cache is typically a dictionary that stores information about the circuit that is needed by apply() but not available in individual cycles of the circuit, such as all of the labels the circuit acts on.

A relaxation noise source will attempt to apply noise on all qubits present in the circuit, even if they do not have an operation acting on them during a particular cycle. Thus this cache contains all of the labels the circuit acts on.

Parameters

circuit (Circuit) – The circuit being simulated by the (noisy) simulator.

Returns

A dictionary of circuit information.

Return type

dict

static relaxation_channel(t1, t2, t, excited_pop)

Determines and returns the superoperator for a relaxation channel by computing the Choi representation, and casting it to a superoperator.

Parameters
  • t1 (float | dict) – The \(T_1\) time, i.e. the characteristic time of relaxation.

  • t2 (float | dict) – The \(T_2\) time, i.e. the characteristic time of dephasing.

  • t (float) – The time that the channel is applied for.

  • excited_pop (float | dict) – The excited state population at equilibrium.

Return type

numpy.ndarray

Raises

ValueError – Raises when \(T_1\) and \(T_2\) are physically invalid, or if excited_pop is a not a valid probability.

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies relaxation noise to all qubits in the circuit. If match finds any multi-qubit gates within the cycle, the entire cycle takes t_multi amount of time. Otherwise, the cycle is assumed to take t_single amount of time.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. This noise source only uses the last one.

  • state (Tensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

class trueq.simulation.add_spam.POVMNoise(povm, match=None)

A noise source that adds POVM noise on a measurement; see add_povm() for details. Since measurement can only occur during the last cycle of a circuit, this noise source will only attempt to apply itself during a measurement cycle.

Parameters
  • povm (Tensor) – A tensor describing a POVM.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Raises

NotImplementedError – If the match is not None.

apply(cycle_wrapper, state, cache)

Applies all gates in the last of the given cycle_wrappers that have not yet been simulated to the given state. This method defines ideal simulation, which children will typically overload to add noise.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. These are all given to allow non-Markovian noise; typically only the last will be used.

  • state (StateTensor | OperatorTensor) – The state of the simulation. This can either represent the quantum state of the simulated circuit thus far, or the operator which describes the action of the simulated circuit thus far.

  • circuit_cache (dict) – Cached information about the circuit.

class trueq.simulation.add_spam.PrepNoise(state, match=None)

A noise source that adds state preparation error; see add_prep() for details. A preparation noise source can indicate a dictionary of labels and target noisy states, a single target noisy state, or a probability representing a classically mixed state as the noisy target. Only the preparation objects that match with the condition(s) of match will be affected. If a single state/probability is provided, it will be stored with a None key, and will apply this noise source to all valid preparation objects returned by match.

Parameters
  • state (dict | StateTensor | float) – A state or a dictionary of (labels, states) defining the state preparation error. A probability in place of a state represents a classically mixed state of the same probability.

  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Raises

ValueError – If dimensions are inconsistent during state preparation, or the bitflip probability is not a valid probability.

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, cache)

Applies the preparation noise to the state, by checking if each matched label from match corresponds to a label within the initialized states, or if None is encountered as a key, the preparation noise will be applied to all matched labels. The effective superoperator is the partial trace over matched subsystems, tensored together with states in the traced out subsystems.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. This noise source only uses the last one.

  • state (StateTensor) – The state to propagate.

  • cache (dict) – A dictionary to cache results in.

class trueq.simulation.noise_source.NoiseSource(match=None, dim=None)

Parent class for all built in noise sources which can be added to the simulator. A noise source comprises a method apply() that mutates the state of simulation by inspecting a given cycle, a Match instance for filtering which operations in the cycle to consider, a cache for storing saved calculations that persists for the lifetime of the noise source, and an optional attribute dim for explicitly defining the allowed subsystem dimension.

Generally, a NoiseSource is added to a simulator, and then during circuit propagation it has an opportunity to apply noise cycle by cycle. Within the simulation of each cycle, a noise source can either simply add noise, or additionally attempt to simulate some of the operations within a cycle. A default noise source is always included in the Simulator to ensure that all gates within a cycle that are not simulated by a user-appended noise source are eventually simulated ideally.

Parameters
  • match (Match | NoneType) – A match object which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

  • dim (int | NoneType) – The subspace dimension expected by a noise source, or None, if there is no needed restriction to a particular subspace dimension.

property dim

The Hilbert space dimension of each subsystem expected by this propagator. If the dimension is set to None, then the noise source does not care about the dimension of a given subsystem. Otherwise, the dimension is an integer, and the noise source can use this information to assert that it can be applied correctly during simulation.

Returns

The expected dimension of subsystems as an integer, or None.

Type

int | NoneType

property match

The Match instance owned by this noise source. This object is typically used by apply() to filter which cycle operations are presented to it.

For example, the noise source can be initialized with a match on gates, defined by an instance of GateMatch initialized with a list of gates. In this case, the noise source will only have the opportunity to apply itself to the state whenever one of these gates appears.

Returns

The Match which determines the conditions required for a noise source to attempt to apply itself to the state during simulation.

Type

Match

make_circuit_cache(circuit)

Instantiates a cache object that will be made available to apply() as circuit_cache for each call within the circuit. The cache is typically a dictionary that stores information about the circuit that is needed by apply() but not available in individual cycles of the circuit, such as all of the labels the circuit acts on.

Parameters

circuit (Circuit) – The circuit being simulated by the (noisy) simulator.

Returns

A dictionary of circuit information.

Return type

dict

apply(cycle_wrappers, state, circuit_cache)

Applies all gates in the last of the given cycle_wrappers that have not yet been simulated to the given state. This method defines ideal simulation, which children will typically overload to add noise.

Parameters
  • cycle_wrappers (list) – All CycleWrappers from the beginning of the circuit up until the current cycle in the simulation. These are all given to allow non-Markovian noise; typically only the last will be used.

  • state (StateTensor | OperatorTensor) – The state of the simulation. This can either represent the quantum state of the simulated circuit thus far, or the operator which describes the action of the simulated circuit thus far.

  • circuit_cache (dict) – Cached information about the circuit.

OpWrapper

class trueq.simulation.match.OpWrapper(labels, op)

Wraps labels and an Operation into one small object. The wrapper keeps track of whether or not it has been simulated via has_been_simulated, which is marked as True during cycle propagation within a simulation by a NoiseSource's Match when it simulates the action of the operation on the state. Further, it keeps track of whether some noise source has indicated that no further noise should be applied via no_more_noise, and is primarily modified by setting the exclusive variable defined in a Match to True.

Two OpWrappers are equal if and only if all four of their properties are equal. That is, the labels and operations must be equal, as well as the state of their flags, has_been_simulated and no_more_noise.

Parameters
  • labels (tuple) – A tuple of integers which determines where the Operation is located within a cycle.

  • op (Gate | Meas | Prep) – The Operation being wrapped.

CycleWrapper

class trueq.simulation.match.CycleWrapper(cycle)

Wraps a Cycle into a list of OpWrappers, partitioning the cycle ops into three groups, Gate which contains all gates, Meas which contains all measurements, and Prep which contains all state preparations in the cycle being propagated by the simulator. The wrapper also contains the Cycle itself, as well as its dimension via dim.

A CycleWrapper can be asked to return all gates which have not yet been simulated via final_iter(), serving as a final catch during cycle propagation, and is utilized by the parent class of noise sources, NoiseSource during the call of apply().

Parameters

cycle (Cycle) – The cycle being wrapped.

property all_ops

Yields all operators within the cycle wrapped by this instance. Each operator in the cycle is yielded as an OpWrapper.

Type

generator