Protocols to Generate Circuits¶
Keys for QCVV protocols¶
Key Names 
Description 
Type 
Relevant protocols 
Examples 
protocol 
uniquely specifies the characterization protocol used to generate the circuit 
str 
SRB, IRB, XRB, CB, NR 
“SRB”, “XRB” 
n_random_cycles 
the number of independently random cycles in the circuit 
int 
SRB, IRB, XRB, CB, NR 
4, 16, 32 
twirl 
specifies the twirling groups used for subsystems 
tuple 
SRB, IRB, XRB, CB, NR 
((‘C1’, 0),) 
cycle 
a fixed cycle to be characterized 
custom 
IRB, CB, NR 

seq_label 
a number to group related sequences 
int 
XRB 
3094, 4326 
pauli_decay 
an nqubit Pauli operator 
custom 
CB, NR 
API Methods¶

trueq.protocols.
make_cb
(cycle, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, n_decays=20, twirling_group=None, propagate_correction=False)¶ Generates a
CircuitCollection
for cycle benchmarking (CB).import trueq as tq # generate a circuit collection to run CB on the 0th qubit, with 30 circuits, # for each length in [5, 20] and each with 3 randomly chosen Pauli decay strings circuits = tq.make_cb(tq.Cycle({(0,): tq.Gate.x}), [5, 20], 30, 3)
 Parameters
cycle (
Cycle
) – The cycle to benchmark.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.n_decays (
int
) – An integer specifying the total number of randomly chosen pauli decay strings used to measure the process infidelity. Setting this value lower thanmin(20, 4 ** n_qubits  1)
may result in a biased estimate.twirling_group (
Iterable
) – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of"P"
(Pauli),"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["P", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["P", 4]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"P"
by default.propagate_correction (
bool
) – Whether to propagate correction gates to the end of the circuit or compile them in to neighbouring cycles. Warning: can result in arbitrary twoqubit gates at the end of the circuit!
 Returns
A collection of CB circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
make_sc
(cycle, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, pauli_decays=None, twirling_group=None, propagate_correction=False)¶ Generates a
CircuitCollection
for stochastic calibration (SC). Pauli decays should be chosen so that they anticommute with the generators of a known noise model.import trueq as tq # generate a circuit collection to run SC on the 0th qubit, with 30 circuits, # for each length in [5, 20] and each with a Pauli decay string "Z" circuits = tq.make_sc(tq.Cycle({(0,): tq.Gate.x}), [5, 20], 30, "Z")
 Parameters
cycle (
Cycle
) – The cycle to benchmark.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.pauli_decays (
Iterable
) – A list of pauli decay strings, e.g.["ZIZIZ", "XYXYX"]
that specify which elements of the diagonalized channel should be averaged to approximate the effects of noise.twirling_group (
Iterable
) – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of"P"
(Pauli),"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["P", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["P", 4]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"P"
by default.propagate_correction (
bool
) – Whether to propagate correction gates to the end of the circuit or compile them in to neighbouring cycles. Warning: can result in arbitrary twoqubit gates at the end of the circuit!
 Returns
A collection of SC circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
make_knr
(cycle, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, n_bodies=1, twirling_group=None, propagate_correction=False)¶ Generates a circuit collection to perform kbody noise reconstruction (KNR) on all sets of subsystems targeted by a combination of n gates.
For example, if the input cycle is
{0: tq.Gate.id, (1, 3): tq.Gate.cnot, 2: tq.Gate.x}
andn_bodies=2
, then data will be present to reconstruct any Pauli error rate on the subsystems[0, 1, 3]
,[0, 2]
,[1, 2, 3]
(and any subsystems thereof, e.g.[1, 2]
but not[0, 1, 2]
). Note that the number of returned circuits scales with the value ofn_bodies
, so it is best to pick the smallest number that suits your needs.import trueq as tq # generate a circuit collection to reconsturct twobody marginal # error distributions # on a 4qubit device using 30 circuits for each length in [6, 20] # and for each Pauli subspace in a set of log2(4) subspaces circuits = tq.make_knr( tq.Cycle({(j,): tq.Gate.x for j in range(4)}), [6, 20], 30 )
 Parameters
cycle (
Cycle
) – The cycle to benchmark.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.n_bodies (
int
) – A number of gate bodies to reconstruct marginal probability distributions for.twirling_group – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of
"P"
(Pauli),"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["P", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["P", 4]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"P"
by default.propagate_correction (
bool
) – Whether to propagate correction gates to the end of the circuit or compile them in to neighbouring cycles. Warning: can result in arbitrary twoqubit gates at the end of the circuit!
 Returns
A collection of KNR circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
make_tnr
(cycle, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, targeted_errors=None, n_decays=15, twirling_group=None, propagate_correction=False)¶ Generates a circuit collection to perform targeted noise reconstruction (TNR) of the rate at which each Pauli error in a specified set occurs.
import trueq as tq # generate a circuit collection to reconstruct targeted error distributions # on a 4qubit device using 30 circuits for each length in [6, 20] # and for each Pauli subspace in a set of log2(4) subspaces circuits = tq.make_tnr( tq.Cycle({(j,): tq.Gate.x for j in range(4)}), [6, 20], 30, ["XXZZ", "XYXY"] )
 Parameters
cycle (
Cycle
) – The cycle to benchmark.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.targeted_errors (
Iterable
) – A list of pauli strings, e.g.["ZIZIZ", "XYXYX"]
that specify which errors to target.n_decays (
int
) – The number of commuting and anticommuting Pauli decays to guarantee for each specified targeted error. For example, if this value is 10, than each targeted error will have at least 10 commuting Pauli decays and 10 anticommuting Pauli decays in the resulting circuit collection. These Pauli decays are stored in themeasurement_basis
keyword of each circuit’s key.twirling_group – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of
"P"
(Pauli),"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["P", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["P", 4]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"P"
by default.propagate_correction (
bool
) – Whether to propagate correction gates to the end of the circuit or compile them in to neighbouring cycles. Warning: can result in arbitrary twoqubit gates at the end of the circuit!
 Returns
A collection of TNR circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
make_srb
(labels, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, twirling_group=None)¶ Generates a circuit collection for (simultaneous) streamlined randomized benchmarking (SRB). Clifford twirls are generated for all qubits specified in
labels
. One can choose to do any combination of singlequbit twirling or twoqubit twirling on the labels. For instance, settinglabels
as[5, 6]
indicates singlequbit twirling on qubits 5 and 6, whereas[[5, 6]]
indicates twoqubit twirling on the pair[5, 6]
.import trueq as tq # generate a circuit collection to run single qubit SRB on qubit 5 circuits = tq.make_srb([5], [4, 200], 30) # generate a circuit collection to run twoqubit SRB on qubit pair [5, 6] circuits = tq.make_srb([[5, 6]], [4, 200], 30) # generate a circuit collection to run simultaneous onequbit SRB on [5, 6, 7] circuits = tq.make_srb([5, 6, 7], [4, 200], 30) # generate a circuit collection to run simultaneous onequbit SRB [5, 6, 7], # twoqubit SRB on [0, 1] and [8, 9] circuits = tq.make_srb([[0, 1], 5, 6, 7, [8, 9]], [4, 200], 30)
 Parameters
labels (
Iterable
) – A list of (lists of) positive integers, specifying qubit labels in each circuit, e.g.[3, [1, 2], 4]
.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.twirling_group (
Iterable
) – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["SU", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["SU", 4, 6]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"C"
by default.
 Returns
A collection of SRB circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
make_irb
(cycle, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, twirling_group=None, propagate_correction=False)¶ Generates a circuit collection for (simultaneous) interleaved randomized benchmarking (IRB) of a single cycle.
import trueq as tq # generate a circuit collection to run single qubit IRB on an X gate acting on # qubit 0, with 30 random circuits for each circuit length in [5, 40, 60, 100] circuits = tq.make_irb(tq.Cycle({(0,): tq.Gate.x}), [5, 40, 60, 100], 30) # next, generate circuits to run IRB on a cycle with an X gate acting on qubit 0 # and a CZ gate on qubits (2, 3), with 20 random circuits at each circuit length tq.make_irb(tq.Cycle({(0,): tq.Gate.x, (2, 3): tq.Gate.cz}), [2, 100], 20)
 Parameters
cycle (
Cycle
) – The cycle to benchmark.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.twirling_group (
Iterable
) – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["SU", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["SU", 4, 6]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"C"
by default.propagate_correction (
bool
) – Whether to propagate correction gates to the end of the circuit or compile them in to neighbouring cycles. Warning: can result in arbitrary twoqubit gates at the end of the circuit!
 Returns
A collection of IRB circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
make_xrb
(labels, n_random_cycles, n_circuits=30, twirling_group=None)¶ Generates a circuit collection for (simultaneous) extended randomized benchmarking (XRB), to study both the unitarity and leakage of the noise on single qubit(s).
import trueq as tq # generate circuit collections to run XRB on a single qubit (qubit 0), with # 30 random circuits for each length in [4, 50, 500] circuits = tq.make_xrb([0], [4, 50, 500], 30) # generate circuit collections to run twoqubit XRB on qubit pair [5, 6], with # 50 random circuits for each length in [3, 150] circuits = tq.make_xrb([[5, 6]], [3, 150], 50) # generate a circuit collection to run simultaneous onequbit XRB on [5, 6, 7] # with 30 random circuits for each length in [5, 10, 100] circuits = tq.make_xrb([5, 6, 7], [5, 10, 100], 30) # generate a circuit collection to run simultaneous onequbit XRB on qubit 5, # and twoqubit XRB on qubits [1, 2], with 15 random circuits for each circuit # length in [4, 30] circuits = tq.make_xrb([[1, 2], 5], [4, 30], 15)
 Parameters
labels (
Iterable
) – A list of (lists of) positive integers, specifying qubit labels in each circuit, e.g.[3, [1, 2], 4]
.n_random_cycles (
Iterable
) – A list of positive integers, specifying how many random cycles will be generated during the protocol, e.g.[6, 20]
.n_circuits (
int
) – The number of circuits for each random cycle.twirling_group (
Iterable
) – The twirling group to use in this protocol. This can be one of"SU"
(special unitary),"C"
(Clifford), or a mixture such as[["SU", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["SU", 4, 6]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"C"
by default.
 Returns
A collection of XRB circuits.
 Return type

trueq.protocols.
randomly_compile
(circuits, n_compilations=30, twirling_group=None, compile_paulis=False, compress=True)¶ Randomly compiles the given circuit into many new random circuits which implement the same algorithm. Random gates are inserted adjacent to gates in the provided circuit, chosen from the specified twirling group (the Pauli group is used by default).
Cycles in the input circuit that are immutable will be treated as hard gates, and those that are mutable will be treated as easy gates. Recall that twoqubit gates are always considered immutable.
Note: Running randomly_compile() on a circuit several times is likely to return different compiled circuits due to the random nature of the algorithm. The circuit returned will always contain the same number of cycles as the input circuit, and will be logically equivalent, up to a global phase.
import trueq as tq #Define a circuit which applies an X gate on the 0th qubit, a controlledZ #gate on qubits 0 and 1, and another X gate on the 0th qubit. cycle1 = tq.Cycle({(0, ): tq.Gate.x}) cycle2 = tq.Cycle({(0, 1): tq.Gate.cz}); circuit = tq.Circuit((cycle1, cycle2, cycle1)) circuit.measure_all() #Run randomized compiling on the circuit compiled_circuit = tq.randomly_compile(circuit)
One possible output for the example above is:
(0,): Gate.y (1,): Gate.x Imm (0, 1): Gate.cz (0,): Gate.x (1,): Gate.x Imm (0,): Meas() (1,): Meas()
 Parameters
circuits (
Circuit
) – A circuit to randomly compile.n_compilations (
int
) – The number of random compilations of the input circuit. Each instance will appear as a new circuit in the returned circuit collection.twirling_group (
Iterable
) – The twirling group to use, e.g.,"P"
,"C"
, or"SU"
. These can be applied differently to different qubit labels, e.g.[["P", 0], ["C", 1, 2], ["C", 3], ["P", 4]]
. If the twirling group is not specified or if some labels are omitted in the specification, they will be populated fromlabels
with"P"
by default.compile_paulis (
bool
) – Whether or not to compile a random Pauli gate onto a qubit in the cycle preceding a measurement operation for eachMeas
operation encountered in the circuit. Which Paulis were compiled in are stored as a string in thekey
, where the order is first defined by cycle index, and then by sorted labels of each cycle. (default isFalse
).compress (
bool
) – Whether or not to compress the easy cycles (default isTrue
).
 Returns
A circuit collection containing randomly compiled versions of the circuit.
 Return type
py:class:~trueq.CircuitCollection

trueq.protocols.
make_readout_calibration
(labels, stagger=False, independent=True, batch=None)¶ Generates a circuit collection to measure readout error on the provided qubit labels. These circuits contain identity and X gates.
 Parameters
labels (
Iterable
) – A list of qubit labels to calibrate the readout error of.stagger (
bool
) – Whether X gates should appear in separate immutable cycles. If gates are much worse when applied in parallel, then staggering the gates will reduce systematic errors, provided gate duration multiplied by the number of qubits is much shorter than T1.independent (
bool
) – Whether it can be assumed that readout error is independent over qubits. Under this assumption, only two circuits are required, whereas (warning!) \(2^n\) are required when this assumption does not hold. Note that if you measure the readout calibration matrix in both indepdent and nonindepedent mode, any observed nonindependence could potentially be due to gate crosstalk errors.batch (
int
) – A unique identifier for these calibration circuits. Circuits which are to be calibrated off of these circuits’ results in particular should set theirtrueq.Circuit.key
batch attribute to the same value.
 Return type